- I. Introduction
- 1. Why a Source Book?
- 2. Opportunities and Challenges
- 3. The Extractive Industries
- II. Cross-Cutting Topics
- 4. Transparency and Accountability
- III. The Extractive Industries Value Chain
- 5. Policy, Legal and Contractual Framework
- 6. Sector Organization and Institutions
- 7. Fiscal Design and Administration
- 8. Revenue Management and Distribution
- 9. Sustainable Development
Angola is located in Sub-Sahara Africa, on the South Atlantic Coast of tropical Southern Africa. The country is bordered in the north (Cabinda Province) by the Republic of the Congo, and shares an extensive border from its north to its east with the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). In the east, Angola is also bordered by Zambia, whereas in in the south, Angola is bordered by Namibia.
Angola, with a total area of 1,246,700 km2 (including Cabinda Province), is the seventh largest state in Africa, but it is also one of the least densely populated. Its population is currently 24.3 million inhabitants according to the national census conducted in 2014.
The terrain broadly comprises a narrow coastal plain that rises abruptly to a vast interior plateau. Three principal regions are distinguished: the coastal lowland; a median zone of coast-parallel hills, cuestas and mountains, rising inland from the coast into a great escarpment; and a high inland plateau , which extends eastward from the escarpment. The inland plateau covers almost two-thirds of the country, and it is where the country’s highest peak, Moco Mountain (2,620 m), is located. Kwanza is the country’s biggest river and several tributaries of the Congo River have their sources in Angolan highlands.
The geology of Angola comprises an extensive area of Proterozoic, dominantly (meta-) sedimentary, sequences in the west of the country with enclaves of older Archaen crystalline basement, an area of similar basement rocks of Neoarchean age forms the Kasai Craton in the northeast of the country. The Proterozoic rocks include tillites, of the Bembe System, at the base followed by stromatolitic and oolitic limestones part of a thick sequence of overlying Mesozoic-Cenozoic marine sediments; clastic sediments and volcanic rocks of the Karoo Supergroup are found in a well-defined belt, the Cassanje Graben, in the north central region of the country. Magmatic activity of Karoo age included kimberlites and carbonatites located along a major trend line that transects Angola from NE-SW. The eastern region of the country is covered by continental sediments of the Kalahari Group.