Angola is located on the South Atlantic Coast of tropical West Africa between Namibia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). It also is bordered by the DRC and Zambia to the east. The province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the DRC. Angola, with a total area of 1,246,700 km2 (including Cabinda Province), is the seventh largest state in Africa, but it is also one of the least densely populated. The terrain broadly comprises a narrow coastal plain that rises abruptly to a vast interior plateau. Three principal regions are distinguished: the coastal lowland (littoral); a median zone of coast-parallel hills, cuestas and mountains, rising inland from the coast into a great escarpment; and a high inland plateau (planalto), which extends eastward from the escarpment. The inland plateau (1200-1600 metres), where the two highest peaks, Moco Mountain (2,620 m) and Meco Mountain (2,538 m) are located, covers almost two-thirds of the country. The Zambezi River and several tributaries of the Congo River have their sources in Angolan highlands.The population of Angola was estimated at 12,799,293 with a growth rate of 2.095% (2009 est.). GDP (PPP) was estimated in 2008 at US$112.8 billion with a real growth rate of 12.3%.
The geology of Angola comprises an extensive area of Proterozoic, dominantly (meta-)sedimentary, sequences in the west of the country with enclaves of older Archaen crystalline basement, an area of similar basement rocks of (?)Neoarchean age forms the Kasai Craton in the northeast of the country. The Proterozoic rocks include tillites, of the Bembe System, at the base followed by stromatolitic and oolitic limestones part of a thick sequence of overlying Mesozoic-Cenozoic marine sediments; clastic sediments and volcanic rocks of the Karoo Supergroup are found in a well-defined belt, the Cassanje Graben, in the north central region of the country. Magmatic activity of Karoo age included kimberlites and carbonatites located along a major trend line that transects Angola from NE-SW. The eastern region of the country is covered by continental sediments of the Kalahari Group.
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