Burkina Faso

Geography

Burkina Faso is a landlocked Sahel country south of the loop of the Niger River in West Africa. It is surrounded by six countries: Mali to the north, Niger to the east, Benin to the southeast, Togo and Ghana to the south, and Côte d'Ivoire to the southwest. The country covers a total area of 274,200 km² and comprises mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains with hills in west and southeast. The average altitude of Burkina Faso is 400 metres and the highest peak located in the southwest reaches an elevation of 749 m. The country owes its former name of Upper Volta to three rivers which cross it: the Black Volta (or Mouhoun), the White Volta (Nakambé) and the Red Volta (Nazinon). The Black Volta is one of the country's only two perennial rivers. The basin of the Niger River also drains 27% of the country's surface via four main seasonal tributaries. Three climatic zones can be defined: the semiarid Sahel, the transitional Sudan-Sahel, and the subhumid tropical Sudan-Guinea.

Geology

Birimian-age greenstone belts cover large parts of Burkina Faso and host the known structurally controlled quartz vein and stockwork mineralization.  Phanerozoic geology, i.e. the current era of abundant flora and fauna dating back to approximately 541m BCE, dominate western Burkina Faso, and also the far north of the country.