Equatorial Guinea


Equatorial Guinea includes widely separated insular and continental regions located in west-central Africa bordering the Bight of Biafra and South Atlantic. Mainland Equatorial Guinea, also referred to as Rio Muni, is bounded by Cameroon in the north and Gabon in the east and south. Insular parts include Bioko Island, the largest island in the Gulf of Guinea at 2,017km2, the islands of Annobón, Corisco, Elobey Grande, Elobey Chico, and adjacent islets. The total land area is 28,051km2 of which 26,003km2 is the continental region of Rio Muni. The islands are volcanic and Bioko has the highest peak (Pico Basile at 3008m) in the country. On the mainland the coastal plain gives way to a hilly interior with a succession of valleys separated by low hills and spurs of the Crystal Mountains. 


Pre-cambrian crystalline basement metamorphic sequences underlie most of the central and eastern mainland of Equatorial Guinea while Mesozoic, Neogene and Quaternary sediments are exposed along its coastal and western zone. The basement sequences are part of the Congo Craton and comprise granitic-gneiss, greenstone, schist-amphibolite and, dominantly younger, undifferentiated granitoids. The Atlantic Ocean volcanic islands of Pagalu (Annobon) and Bioko (Fernando Poo) are part of the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL).