The Republic of Ghana is a country in West Africa, on the coast of the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean. Lying just a few degrees north of the Equator and traversed by the Greenwich meridian, Ghana is bordered by Togo to the east, Côte d'Ivoire to the west and Burkina Faso to the north. The country spans a total area of 238,533 km2 of which 11,000 km2 (4.6%) is water. The terrain mostly comprises low plains with a dissected plateau region in south-central area and the hilly Akwapim-Togo ranges along the country's eastern border. The Volta River Basin takes up most of central Ghana and Lake Volta, created by the Akosombo Dam, is the largest artificial lake by surface area (8,482 km²) and fifth by volume in the world. The climate is tropical. 


The geology of Ghana is dominated by predominantly metavolcanic Paleoproterozoic Birimian sequences and the clastic Tarkwaian in the central west and northern parts of the country. Clastic shallow water sediments of the Neoproterozoic Volta Basin cover the east of the country. A small strip of Paleozoic and Cretaceous to Tertiary sediments occur along the coast and in the extreme southeast of the country (source).

Ghana can be subdivided geologically into three major units:

  • Paleoproterozoic rocks of the Birrimian Supergroup predominate in the southwestern and northwestern parts of the country;
  • Gneisses and supracrustal rocks of mostly Neoproterozoic age occur in the southeast and east of the country and flat-lying shelf/marine sediments of latest Proterozoic to Paleozoic age, dominated by the Voltaian Supergroup, are found in the central and northeastern part of the country; and
  • Cenozoic sediments occur in a thin strip along the SE coast.