Lesotho is a mountainous, landlocked country located in Southern Africa. It is completely surrounded by South Africa making it one of only three countries in the world that are enclaves within another country. Lesotho covers an area of around 30,355 km2, of which a negligible percentage is covered with water. The terrain is mostly highland with plateaus, hills, and mountains. It is the only independent state in the world that lies entirely above 1,000 metres in elevation and 80 per cent of the country lies above 1800 metres. Its lowest point is at 1,400 metres and its highest peak in the Drakensberg and Maloti mountain ranges in the east and central parts of the country is Thabana Ntlenyana at 3,482 m. It has a temperate continental climate. The Orange River rises in the Drakensberg Mountains in northeastern Lesotho and flows across the entire length of the country before exiting to South Africa. 


Lesotho is almost exclusively underlain by rocks of the Karoo Supergroup, overlying crystalline metamorphic basement, comprising sediments in the northwest and southwest and basaltic volcanics of the Drakensberg Group that dominate the central and eastern part of the country.