Namibia is a country in southwest Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, located between Angola and South Africa with Botswana to the east. The E-W protruding Caprivi Strip terminates along the Zambezi River linking the country with Zambia and Zimbabwe. Namibia has a total area 824,292 km2. It largely comprises harsh desert and semi-desert with no permanent water stand apart from dammed reservoirs and the border rivers - Orange in the south and Kunene, Okavango and Zambezi in the north. The Namibian landscape consists generally of five geographical areas: the Central Plateau, the Namib Desert, the Great Escarpment, the Bushveld, and the Kalahari Desert. The Great Escarpment which demarcates the Central Plateau from the coastal desert plain is a mountain wall of up to 2000 metres. The Namib Desert extends along the entire coastline (divided into the northern Skeleton Coast, the southern Diamond Coast and Namib Sand Sea) and is one of the oldest known deserts; its sand dunes are the highest in the world. The Namibian coastal deserts are the richest source of alluvial gem diamonds on earth. The Central Plateau where most of the population live slowly descends eastward to the Kalahari Desert basin which is shared with South Africa and Botswana. The Bushveld in northeastern Namibia, which receives a greater amount of precipitation than the rest of the country, is located adjacent to the Etosha Pan: a dry, saline wasteland that during the wet season forms a shallow lake covering over 6000 km2. 


The geology of Namibia encompasses rocks of Paleo-, Meso- and Neoproterozoic age found mainly in the western half of the country and dominated by metasediments of the Damara Group to the north and older crystalline basement, including the Namaqua Metamorphic Complex, in the south. Paleozoic to Cenozoic sediments occur in the south and north western areas and include deposits of the Karoo Supergroup. Extensive Cenozoic surficial sediments blanket the north and eastern parts of the country.