The Federal Republic of Nigeria is located in West Africa on the Gulf of Guinea and shares land borders with the Republic of Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north. It has a major coastline on the Atlantic Ocean, to the south. The total area of Nigeria is 923,768 km² of which 1.4 per cent is water. Nigeria's most expansive topographical region is that of the valleys of the main rivers, the Niger and the Benue which converge and empty into the Niger Delta, one of the world's largest river deltas. The southern coastal plains with salt water mangrove swamps pass northward into the central highlands and the Adamawa and Jos Plateaus; mountains fringe the southeast border zone with Cameroon and include Nigeria’s highest peak, Chappal Waddi at 2419 m. The far south is defined by tropical rainforest and the far north is almost desert-like and in between is mainly Sudanese-Sahelian savannah. In the north east corner lies Lake Chad, which Nigeria shares with Niger, Chad and Cameroon.

Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, has one of the largest economies in Africa, and is the prominent regional power in West Africa. Petroleum plays a large role in the Nigerian economy.


Nigeria is underlain by rocks of Archean and Paleoproterozoic age outcropping mainly in the north, west and east and comprising grey-gneiss, schist and migmatites of the basement complex and supracrustals. These rocks are intruded by the so called ‘Older Granites’ of Pan-African age (700-500 Ma) and intercalated with metasediments of Proterozoic to Paleozoic age. The "Younger Granites" are of Jurassic age and commonly form major ring-complexes intruding Neoproterozoic to early Palaeozoic units of the Jos Plateau in central-northern Nigeria in a well-defined N-S zone which continues through to the Air region in Niger. Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments of marine and continental types are found in the Sokoto or Iullemmeden Basin, the Chad Basin, the Benue and Niger Valley and the Niger Delta. 

The Tsohon Birnin Gwari gold deposit in Kaduna State is within the Kushaka schist belt of northwestern Nigeria which was heavily mined prior to World War II. The gold mineralization is within a series of metasediments that lie in a number of isoclinal fold structures trending N-S and with a strong foliation parallel to the axial planes of the folds. The Kushaka belt is also associated with another prominent occurrence of gold mineralization referred to as the Kwaga locality.