Senegal is a tropical West African nation south of the Senegal River and bordered to the west by the North Atlantic Ocean. It is externally bounded by Mauritania in the north (along the Senegal River), Mali in the east, Guinea in the southeast and Guinea Bissau in the south (along the Casamance River). The country also completely surrounds The Gambia which penetrates over 320km into the Senegal along the valley of the Gambia River. The Cape Verde islands lie some 560km off the Senegalese coast. The capital Dakar lies on the Cap-Vert peninsula, the westernmost point of continental Africa. The country's total area is 196,722km² of which 4,192km² (2.1%) is water. The terrain consists mainly of low rolling sandy plains of the western Sahel rising to foothills in the southeast with the highest elevation, Nepen Diakha, at 584m. 


Senegal’s geology is dominated by two broad geological units: i) mainly Proterozoic, Birrimian age, Precambrian basement in the southeast of the country, although including sediments of Cambrian age, and ii) a large sedimentary basin of Mesozoic-Recent age that occupies the remainder of the country west of approximately 130W. A small inlier of Mesozoic metamorphics occurs in the west near Dakar.

Phosphate rock and derivative phosphoric acid production dominate Senegal’s mineral sector. It is the seventh largest phosphate producer in Africa. Production however has declined overall. This has impacted directly upon exports and GDP. Other commodities produced by Senegal include natural gas, petroleum, gold, salt, fullers earth and a variety of construction materials.