The Kingdom of Swaziland is a landlocked country in Southern Africa bordered to the east by Mozambique and surrounded to the north, south, and west by South Africa. It is the smallest country of the Southern Hemisphere with an area of 17,364 km2. The major regions of the country are the Highveld (average 1200m; peak 1862m) in the west and northwest, the adjacent Middleveld (average 700m) where much of the country's agriculture occurs and further to the east the sub-tropical lowveld (around 250m). The eastern border with Mozambique and South Africa is dominated by the 600m escarpment of the Lebombo Mountains.

Swaziland's economic growth and societal integrity remain highly endangered by its HIV infection rate that are some of the highest in the world. Swaziland's main trading partner is South Africa, and its economy is very closely linked to the South African economy. The extractive industries are not a significant contributor to the country’s GDP. 


The geology of Swaziland is dominated in the western and central part of the country by Precambrian (Archean) units belonging to the Swaziland and Pongola Supergroups and younger Neo-Archean granitoid intrusive suites located at the eastern edge of the Kaapval Craton. In the eastern part of the country along the border area with Mozambique, the basement units are overlapped by volcanosedimentary Karroo sequences. The oldest known unit is probably the Ngwane Gneiss which is succeeded by the tripartite Swaziland Supergroup that crop out within the Baberton Greenstone Belt in the northwest of the country.