Togo is a small sub-Saharan nation comprising a long narrow north-south strip of land in West Africa. It is bordered to the east by Benin, to the north by Burkina Faso and to the west by Ghana. To the south it has 56km of coastline along the Bight of Benin of the Gulf of Guinea in the North Atlantic. Togo covers a total area of 56,785 km2 of which 2400km2 (4.2%) is water. The country primarily consists of two plateau regions separated by a northeast-southwest range of hills, the Togo Mountains, which reach a maximum height of 986m. The Oti River, one of the main tributaries of the River Volta, cuts across the country to the north of the mountains. The country spans six geographical regions from the semiarid north to the humid tropical south. 


Togo is largely underlain by Proterozoic granitoids and gneisses in the central and southern regions and Neoproterozoic metasediments in the north. Cretaceous to Recent basin sediments are restricted to the southern coastal area.