Burkina Faso is predominantly underlain by rocks of the Guinea Rise which borders the Gulf of Guinea and extends from Sierra Leone in the west to Ghana in the east. This rise or dome feature is composed of probable Archean aged migmatites, granitic gneisses and amphibolites overlain by north to northeasterly trending greenstone belts of metasediments and metavolcanics dominated by units of the (Paleo-)Proterozoic Birrimian Supergroup .
Burkina Faso's mineral resources include gold, manganese, copper, zinc, silver, limestone, marble, phosphates, pumice and salt but gold is by far the most important mineral to the economy. Mineral extraction is limited mainly to gold, silver and various industrial and construction materials. Gold production, with the opening of the Kalsaka, Mana and Youga mines, increased by almost 250% in 2008 and Burkina Faso was ranked the eighth largest producer in Africa. Gold is recorded from 7 major districts in Burkina Faso and in addition alluvial diamonds have been recorded but to date no major discoveries have been announced. In addition to gold the country’s most significant mineral resources are zinc and manganese.
Under a World Bank financed, Bugeco technical assistance contract, the Bureau of Geological Consultancy (Belgium) was asked to evaluate the new mining potential of the country. Bugeco assisted the Government in preparing a political document for a new mining strategy and in restructuring the existing mining institution. Bugeco was requested to evaluate the C.B.M.P. and recommended new solutions (1995). In 1997, Bugeco signed a new contract for a five years period to monitor the SYSMIN funds made available to the Government of Burkina Faso for airborne geophysical and geological mapping project.
Burkina Faso has no significant upstream petroleum industry, and is therefore dependent upon imports of refined products.