- I. Introduction
- 1. Why a Source Book?
- 2. Opportunities and Challenges
- 3. The Extractive Industries
- II. Cross-Cutting Topics
- 4. Transparency and Accountability
- III. The Extractive Industries Value Chain
- 5. Policy, Legal and Contractual Framework
- 6. Sector Organization and Institutions
- 7. Fiscal Design and Administration
- 8. Revenue Management and Distribution
- 9. Sustainable Development
Metal and mineral-based commodities produced by companies in Egypt included aluminum, secondary copper, ferroalloys, gold, DRI, iron ore, manganese, crude steel, and tin. Egypt also produced such industrial minerals as barite, basalt, bentonite, dolomite, feldspar, fluorspar, granite, gypsum, ilmenite, kaolin, limestone, marble, quartz, salt, sand and gravel, sandstone, silica sand, soda ash, sulfur, and talc.
Non fuel mineral resources include gold, tin, tantalum, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead and zinc. Egypt is Africa’s leading producer of talc (84.7%) and gypsum (up to 42%), the second largest producer salt (20.4%), third largest producer of phosphate (7.7%) and vermiculite (3.4%), 4th for iron ore (2.8%), 5th largest for fluorspar and 7th largest for manganese. Vermiculite, phosphate and talc production increased by 27, 31 and 8.4 per cent respectively whilst gypsum, ilmenite and iron ore output declined by 22.2, 18.5 and 17.1 per cent. Egypt is also a significant producer of metals in Africa being ranked second for pig iron (28.7%) and steel (35.9%), third for ferroalloys (3.4%) and aluminium (15%), and fifth for smelted copper (2.4%). Pig iron and ferroalloy production decreased in 2008.
Gold and copper mineralisation occurs in Egypt but not generally of sufficient grade to be economically viable. Gold production from the Sukari Hills (current reserve of 10.29 Moz) started at the end of 2009. Mining of tin, tantalum and feldspar at Abu Dabbab (44.5 Mt) and Nuweibi (98 Mt) is expected to commence in 2013.
Natural gas, petroleum and petroleum products continue to be main mineral commodities produced by Egypt accounting for 12 per cent of GDP.
"Egypt is the largest non-OPEC oil producer in Africa, with crude oil production at 711,500 barrels a day in 2011. It is also the continent's second-largest natural gas producer, supplying 2.2 trillion cubic feet in 2010. The petroleum industry accounted for 10 percent of government revenues in 2011 and 38 percent of exports. Under former President Hosni Mubarak the sector was widely linked to corruption. The political unrest in 2011 did not significantly affect foreign investment in the petroleum industry or disrupt production, and Egypt's revolution has not yet resulted in regulatory changes."; source: NRGI.
In 2013, Egypt was Africa’s second-ranked producer of natural gas after Algeria and the fifth-ranked producer of crude oil after Nigeria, Angola, Algeria, and Libya. Egypt was also Africa’s second-ranked crude steel producer after South Africa and the world’s eighth-ranked producer of direct-reduced iron (DRI).