Extractive Industries


Madagascar is one of the world’s leading producers of sapphire as well as other coloured gemstones including ruby, multi-coloured tourmaline, emerald, amethyst, cordierite, aquamarine and garnet and also plays a significant role in the production of high quality flake graphite. Madagascar is the second largest producer of graphite in Africa accounting for 45% of total output, although production has declined. Madagascar is the third largest producer of chromite in Africa. The country also produces modest amounts of gold, phlogopitic mica, beryl, salt, gypsum and ornamental stone (labradorite, celestite, agate, jasper and rose quartz). Madagascar also has major resources of nickel, cobalt, copper, platinum group metals, titanium, zirconium, uranium, bauxite, iron ore, coal and tar sands. 

Artisanal mining is an important part of the country's mineral sector; the project of the ASM-PACE project is highlighted in the below box.  EI Source Book narrative content on artisanal mining is concentrated within Chapter 2. Opportunities and Challenges, including section 2.1 The Opportunities from Resource Wealth and core to Chapter 2's Mining Specifics Challenges/ Opportunities materials; a library of over fifty artisanal mining downloads is provided as the central content of Chapter 3's  Mining Specifics Challenges/ Opportunities materials.


The giant oil fields of Tsimiroro (heavy oil) and Bemolanga (ultra-heavy oil) with combined reserves currently estimated at around 11.5 billion barrels lie towards the west of the island. However, processing heavy oil using steam injection is technically difficult and expensive.