Madagascar is one of the world’s leading producers of sapphire as well as other coloured gemstones including ruby, multi-coloured tourmaline, emerald, amethyst, cordierite, aquamarine and garnet and also plays a significant role in the production of high quality flake graphite. Madagascar is the second largest producer of graphite in Africa accounting for 45% of total output, although production has declined over the last five years by 35%. Madagascar is the third largest producer of chromite in Africa accounting for 0.8 per cent of total output. The country also produces modest amounts of gold, phlogopitic mica, beryl, salt, gypsum and ornamental stone (labradorite, celestite, agate, jasper and rose quartz). Madagascar also has major resources of nickel, cobalt, copper, platinum group metals, titanium, zirconium, uranium, bauxite, iron ore, coal and tar sands. The giant Ambatovy lateritic nickel-cobalt project is to start production in 2011-12 with an annual capacity of 60,000 tonnes of Ni and 5,600 tonnes of Co. A major titanium sands project at Mandena started production in 2009 and will ramp up production to 750,000 tonnes of ilmenite, rutile and zircon per annum by 2012. Later phases of the project have potential to expand production to 2.2 Mt /yr.

Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining (ASM) in Liberia - work of ASM-Protected Areas and Critical Ecosystems (PACE) project: the ASM-PACE Madagascar Case Study Report: "the overall objective of this ASM in Madagascar Strategic Management of Artisanal Rushes Tool and Lessons Learned Study Project is to address the growing threat of Artisanal and Small Scale Mining on, in and around Madagascar’s protected areas (PAs) and critical ecosystems, and ideally in a way that can ensure continued socioeconomic development without undermining ecological resiliency. This report’s remit is both to provide an historical perspective, and to illustrate the extent of ASM activity and rushes - focusing on successful and failed methods to cope with mineral rushes, and what has been learned in terms of effective ASM and ASM-rush management as a result"; read the full introduction to the case study on the ASM-PACE website.


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