- I. Introduction
- 1. Why a Source Book?
- 2. Opportunities and Challenges
- 3. The Extractive Industries
- II. Cross-Cutting Topics
- 4. Transparency and Accountability
- III. The Extractive Industries Value Chain
- 5. Policy, Legal and Contractual Framework
- 6. Sector Organization and Institutions
- 7. Fiscal Design and Administration
- 8. Revenue Management and Distribution
- 9. Sustainable Development
Welcome to the Partners page of the Extractive Industries Source Book, a partnership between the World Bank Group, a global consortium of universities led by the Centre for Energy, Petroleum, and Mineral Law and Policy (CEPMLP) at the University of Dundee, civil society, and the private sector.
I am the Director of this partnership project and also of CEPMLP. The partnership behind this project is international, multi-sector and powerful both in terms of, the breadth of expertise that it brings in terms of content for the website, and also in the collective judgement it brings to bear in terms of peer review of its knowledge resources.
The African Center for Economic Transformation (ACET) is an economic policy institution, dedicated to promoting the long-term growth and Transformation of African economies. ACET is an EI Source Book partner; read their document "Botswana, Exceptionality - Economics, Politics & Challenges" and their 1st March 2012 report on their work with the EI Source Book and CEPMLP, the lead partner, and view the online video interview recorded contemporaneously.
A leading forum on issues related to foreign direct investment, paying special attention to the impact of such investment on sustainable development. Its objectives are to analyze important topical policy-oriented issues related to foreign direct investment, develop and disseminate practical approaches and solutions, and provide students with a challenging learning environment. Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment is a Joint Center of Columbia Law School and the Earth Institute at Columbia University.
The Centre for Energy, Petroleum, and Mineral Law and Policy (CEPMLP) is the Lead Consultant for the Extractive Industries Source Book project. It is the largest graduate school in the world for the study of law, policy, economics, and management of the international petroleum, mining, and energy sectors. CEPMLP maintains very close links with industry through a comprehensive programme of seminars and professional training, consultancy service to government, companies and international institutions world-wide.
Uploaded CEPMLP resources include the 2013 CEPMLP Annual Report, the CEPMLP Annual Review (online jounral) website and its 2009/10 Edition, and slideshare, e.g. on artisanal and small scale mining and on mine closure, and a comprehensive overview of the various instruments developed to provide good practice guidance for the extractive industries. CEPMLP is grateful for the ongoing support of its work from the Energy, Petroleum, Mineral and Natural Resources Law Policy and Education Trust. The PHD programme brochure is also available to view (external link).
The Research Center on Investment and International Trade Law (Centre de Recherche sur le droit des investissements et des marchés internationaux, CREDIMI) is the leading French research Centre in the study of cross-border business transactions and investment law. The Centre has developed a core of research on emerging forms of self-regulation and on the development of the transnational law of international investment and commerce. The CREDIMI was founded in 1967 in Dijon and is affiliated to the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) and the University of Burgundy.
CREDIMI materials uploaded to the Source Book include the combined H2Oil webinar Extractives and Shareholders’ Rights; and Investment protection for oil companies during ongoing armed conflict, and the following publications:
- Que Disent les Textes OHADA en Matière d'Investissement?;
- The Representation of States before ICSID Tribunals;
- Rebalancing Oil Contracts in Venezuela;
- The Notion of Investment, New Controversies; and
- Changement de législation fiscale et arbitrage international.
The Centre for Sustainability in Mining and Industry (CSMI) is recognised globally as a centre of excellence in Africa for the training and education of managers, practitioners and regulators in sustainable development. The centre offers courses on occupational safety and risk management, occupational health, the bio-physical environment, community investments and stakeholder engagement. CSMI is part of the School of Mining Engineering at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa.
CSMI's resources provided to the EI Source Book include:
- Granting Mineral Rights; A Good Practice Note;
- Granting Mining Rights; Good Practice Guide - Brief;
- Granting Mineral Rights; Appendix; country-specific regulations;
- Good Practice Note for Public Infrastructure and Mining; and
- Good Practice Note for Public Infrastructure and Mining - Brief.
The Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative, (EITI) is a global transparency standard that is implemented in countries. It has a robust yet flexible methodology for monitoring and reconciling company payments and government revenues. Each implementing country creates its own EITI process which is overseen by participants from the government, companies and national civil society. The EITI Board and the International Secretariat are the guardians of the EITI methodology internationally. Examples of EITI documents on the website are as follows: Data Overview of 2005-2011 EITI Reports (Fr) and (En); Engagement with Civil Society; and Implementing EITI at the Subnational Level.
ELLA is a South-South learning and exchange initiative to synthesise and share knowledge about Latin American development experiences with policymakers, researchers and development practitioners, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Working with Latin American regional centres of expertise, the programme focuses on 24 selected themes, split between the three broad areas of Economic Development, Environmental Management and Governance. Three of these themes relate specifically to the extractive industries.
ELLA shares knowledge of recent Latin American experiences; supports learning between Latin American, African and South Asian countries; and provides a networking platform for organisations and individuals to link to Latin America.
ELLA resources showcased on the Source Book include the fascinating case study "Ecuador’s Yasuní–ITT: Rethinking the Conservation vs. Extraction Dilemma".
Global Witness (GW) runs pioneering campaigns against natural resource-related conflict and corruption and associated environmental and human rights abuses. From Cambodia to Congo, Sierra Leone to Angola, GW have exposed the brutality and injustice that results from the fight to access and control natural resource wealth, and have sought to bring the perpetrators of this corruption and conflict to book. Global Witness was the first organization to submit online a publication for inclusion in the EI Source Book, Crude Calculations: The Continued Lack of Transparency over Oil in Sudan, which highlighted the lack of clear and transparent information on Sudan’s oil revenues in the run up to Sudanese partition, and the high impact of this issue on efforts to maintain peace in the region. Subsequent GW publications on the Source Book include the following for South Sudan: South Sudan, Global Witness Oil & Gas report (selected sections, in Chinese) and the full report, South Sudan, Global Witness Oil & Gas report, Blueprint for Prosperity.
The Intergovernmental Forum on Mining, Minerals, Metals and Sustainable Development (IGF) is a voluntary partnership for global dialogue on the role of mining in sustainable development. It has become the leading global intergovernmental policy forum on practical issues related to the sustainable management and development of the mining sector. The objectives of the IGF are to improve and promote the contribution of the mining, minerals and metals sector to sustainable development and poverty reduction. In 2010, members of the IGF prepared a comprehensive Mining Policy Framework (also available: summaries in French, Russian, and Spanish), which represents the best practices required for good environmental, social and economic governance of the mining sector and the generation and equitable sharing of benefits in a manner that will contribute to sustainable development.
The International Council on Mining and Metals (ICMM) was established in 2001 to improve sustainable development performance in the mining and metals industry. Today, it brings together many of the world’s leading mining and metals companies as well as national and regional mining associations and global commodity associations. The organization produces a range of toolkits and publications that provides good practice guidance and promotes sustainable development in mining. Please also also read the ICMM's 2012 Annual Report, just one of over 30 of these ICMM publications are presented on the Source Book.
The International Tax and Investment Center (ITIC), an independent, nonprofit research and education organization was founded in 1993 to promote tax reform and public-private initiatives to improve the investment climate in transition and developing economies.
From 12 offices around the world, ITIC works closely with ministries of finance, customs services and tax authorities in 85 countries, as well as international financial institutions such as the International Monetary Fund, World Bank, World Customs Organization, and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. ITIC’s analytic agenda, global thematic initiatives, regional fiscal forums, and capacity-building efforts are supported by more than 100 corporate sponsors.
Based in Washington DC, ITIC delivers its research programs from affiliates and offices in Azerbaijan, Brazil, Indonesia, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Myanmar, Russia, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, and the United States.
IPIECA is the global oil and gas industry association for environmental and social issues. IPIECA is the only global association involving both the upstream and downstream oil and gas industry on environmental and social issues. IPIECA’s membership covers over half of the world’s oil production. IPIECA is the industry’s principal channel of communication with the United Nations. IPIECA resources on the EI Source Book include Human Rights: Promoting a Culture of Respect and Good Practice and the IPIECA Annual Report 2012.
OpenOil is a transparency organisation and small publishing house, operating globally and based in Berlin, Germany. OpenOil works on resource curse issues: trying to ensure that citizens of resource-rich countries can reap the benefits of their natural resources. All of OpenOil's work is released under Creative Commons License and is created using open-source software.
OpenOil have developed a series of country-level natural resource reference guides. OpenOil develops well-sourced articles of between 100 and 1,000 words in English and local languages summarising contracts, assets, issues, policies and the geopolitics; it then exports content to print book, ebook and smart phone apps.The guides create a richer infosphere in producing countries, and target decision makers and opinion formers there.
The OpenOil Wiki Family - currently consists of oil almanac wikis for: Colombia (in English and Spanish); Ghana; Iran; Iraq (in English and Arabic); Libya; Niger (in English and French); Sudan; South Sudan; Syria; and Uganda.
The OpenOil petroleum repository of free-to-access contracts, listed 806 contracts, A-Z, covering 73 countries. Their data concession map of the world, consists of 20,000 concessions, 2,000 companies, and 69 countries.
The company also publishes an interactive UK fracking map, and, "putting it all together", the Tanzanian extractive industries "open data tour" pilot.
Pact: believes that effective stewardship leads to trust and that trust is the foundation for change; enables systemic solutions that allow those who are poor and marginalized to earn a dignified living, be healthy, and take part in the benefits that nature provides; accomplishes this by strengthening local capacity, forging effective governance systems, and transforming markets into a force for development. Pact's areas of focus align excellently with those of the EI Source Book, not least with respect to its focus on Natural Resource Management, Africa, and Latin America. Pressure for Mineral Supply Chain Traceability, & ASM Impact is an example Pact resource uploaded to the Source Book.
Revenue Watch Institute (now, further to a merger, part of the NRGI) is a non-profit policy institute and grantmaking organization that promotes the effective, transparent and accountable management of oil, gas and mineral resources for the public good. Through capacity building, technical assistance, research and advocacy, we help countries realize the development benefits of their natural resource wealth. Please see RWI event on GOXI: The power of communities - monitoring Extractive Industries in Asia.
The School of Public Policy at the University of Calgary provides a practical, global and focused perspective on public policy analysis and practice in three focus areas, including energy and environmental policy. Uploads to the Source Book include:
- Measuring Effective Tax Rates for Oil & Gas in Canada;
- Plucking the Golden Goose: Higher Royalty Rates on the Oil Sands Generate Significant Increases in Government Revenue;
- The Tricky Art of Measuring Fossil Fuel Subsidies: a Critique of Existing Studies; and
- Taxing Canada's Cash Cow, Tax & Royalty Burdens on Oil and Gas Investments.
The Centre for Social Responsibility in Mining (CSRM) is part of the Sustainable Minerals Institute (SMI) at the University of Queensland. SMI/CSRM has a long track record of working to understand and apply the principles of sustainable development within the global resources industry. CSRM materials provided for the EI Source Book include the following: Good Practice Notes on Community Development Agreements; and accompanying Brief.
The Energy and Minerals Institute at the University of Western Australia represents the expertise and capability of the scientific body that brings research and education to the community. The Institute connects innovative research and high-tech facilities with industries driving the Western Australia economy.
There are many internationally renowned Centres providing leading research and education outcomes for students and industry:
- Centre for Exploration Targeting - focuses on the discovery rate of mineral exploration
Australian Centre for Geomechanics focuses activities in the geomechanics disciplines to provide industry with the necessary tools and knowledge to ensure that safety is not simply a top priority on par with productivity, but rather an ethic that guides everything;
- Centre for Land Rehabilitation pursues cost-effective solutions for rehabilitating disturbed lands and disposing of wastes for the benefit of both business and the community;
- Centre for Mining, Energy and Natural Resource Law provides short courses on legal issues arising from the mining, energy and natural resources sector;
- Centre for Offshore Foundation Systems is recognised globally as a centre of excellence and is one of the world’s largest teams of internationally recognised researchers and consulting engineers in offshore geomechanics;
- Centre for Petroleum Geoscience and CO2 Sequestration explores ways to develop hydrocarbon energy resources and to sequester greenhouse gases like CO2 in an environmentally responsible manner; and
- Centre for Regional Development focuses on understanding and resolving some of the economic, social and environmental challenges facing regional and urban centres
The EI Source Book partnership is very grateful for the funding provided for this project by the World Bank Group, and for the very helpful non-financial support, advice and guidance provided by its staff.
A key World Bank resource with aligned objectives to the Source Book is the PPP in Infrastructure Resource Center for Contracts, Laws and Regulation (PPPIRC) which contains sample public-private partnership (PPP) agreements and concessions, checklists and sample clauses, terms of reference, risk matrices, standard bidding documents developed by government agencies and sample ppp and sector legislation and regulation.
Like the Source Book, it is designed with the vital user constituency of government officials in resource-rich countries, in mind.