Mining Specifics

full all chapter5 chapter6 chapter7 chapter8 chapter9

chapter4 chapter5 chapter6 chapter7 chapter8 chapter9

Transparency and Accountability

Policy, Legal and Contractual Framework

Sector Organization and Institutions

Fiscal Design and Administration

Revenue Management and Distribution

Sustainable Development

  • Undertaking mining sector Strategic Environmental and Social Assessments (SESAs) is recommended good policy.  SESAs should raise attention to relevant environmental and social priorities, assess regulatory, institutional, capacity and political economy conditions to manage these priorities, and develop recommendations to improve the situation including, in particular, actions that enhance the capacity of the relevant authorities to ensure effective implementation, which is key to reinforcing the credibility of the process.


  • Broad community support for mining operations is both desirable in its own right and reinforces a mine’s resilience to unforeseen events, e.g. a change of government.  Conducive to engendering this are: substantial benefits sharing measures, trusted information flows/ communication channels and effective environmental management control.


  • Environmental compliance standards: these should be both realistic and stretching, a fine balance.  Good practice is first to ensure that they are well set and then to focus on capacity to implement and enforce them.


  • Mine Closure Plans (MCPs) are essential for all mines at all stages of their lifecycles.  They inform present operations and mine planning by indicating possible benefits of reducing both short term and long term land and water course disruption and undertaking on-going reclamation and restoration. MCPs should also include provision for economic diversification in cases where the community is overly-dependent upon mining for its economic vibrancy.


  • Involuntary resettlement: good practice is to ensure that any involuntary resettlement takes place according to applicable laws, guidelines and agreements in an acceptable manner to those being resettled with acceptable forms of replacement or compensation for lost land, dwellings, crops and livelihoods and government approved levels of compensation.


  • Land Tenure: good practice also involves protecting the interest of the poorest and most vulnerable regarding land tenure and use and ensuring that compensation recognizes the needs of land holders and users, including customary land owners and users, who may not have formal rights according to the modern day legal system.


  • Health and safety: the government should require and the company to have procedures and institutional mechanisms for monitoring and for addressing health and safety issues not only in the workforce but also in the community.


  • Indigenous peoples: good practice is for the rights and customs of indigenous peoples to be fully protected by law.  In any event, good practice is for industry to respect the rights and culture of indigenous peoples and to only undertake activities if they have well documented evidence that they have broad support of the concerned indigenous peoples.


  • Community economic development planning: good practice involves improving local economic development through the preparation and implementation of community economic development plans supported by job skills training programs, micro finance schemes and  agreements with the mining company regarding community programs, local employment, local procurement and sourcing of goods and services and importance of increasing local economic benefits – all linked to the community economic development plan.  This requires the local social capital to effect such inclusive planning and to be distributed sufficiently within a community to avoid ‘elite capture’.


  • Regional planning: good practice involves identifying opportunities for growth regionally through “mining clusters’ and/or mining growth corridors – where the mine can contribute to broader regional growth including outwith the extractive industries, boosting economic diversification and enhancing economic resilience by reducing dependency on one industry.


  • Industrial relations:  Good practice is for the government to require and the company to have procedures to address any serious workforce issues so that there are generally positive company-workforce relationships.


  • Artisanal and Small-scale Mining (ASM): good practice is to put in place legal provisions so that ASM can take place legally since it is very difficult to get ASM miners to invest in safer or more environmentally responsible mining techniques and practices if they do not have any security of tenure.
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