Africa

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Transparency and Accountability

Policy, Legal and Contractual Framework

Sector Organization and Institutions

Fiscal Design and Administration

Revenue Management and Distribution

Sustainable Development

Nation-specific African content is also provided, organized around an interactive map of the continent.

Introduction

The below resources consist of one African case study (Guinea), a nation rich in mineral endowments, and a continent-wide policy document issued in 2011 by the African Union and UN Economic Commission for Africa, "Mineral's and Africa's Development", relating to this sector.

Sub-Saharan Resource Corridors: focus on Guinea

The term "Scandalre Geologique" has been used to desecribe Guinea in the above presentation.  It is not hard to see why: slide 2 shows the country split into four zones, one of which has bauxite endowments, a second has bauxite and iron, a third has bauzite and iron, a fourth has bauzite and iron and gold, whilst the remaining zone has iron and gold and diamonds.  This World Bank presentation undertakes an analysis of this extraordinairy mineral wealth in the context of sustainelb, resource corridor-driven, development.  An example of a resource corridor-rich extractives project that the World Bank is involved in is show directly below

"Simandou is a world-class iron ore mining project located in the south-east of Guinea. Rio Tinto develops the project in partnership with the Government of Guinea, Chalco and the International Finance Corporation (IFC), a member of the World Bank Group...

The Republic of Guinea will have the right to take a stake of up to 35% in Simfer S.A. (the mine) and a 51% stake in a Special Purpose Vehicle to own the Project Infrastructure (rail & port).

The Simandou Project comprises three principal components:

  • an iron ore mine of 95 million tonnes per year at full production;
  • a Trans-Guinean railway of approximately 670 km to transport the ore from the mining concession to the Guinean coast; and
  • a new deepwater port south of Conakry in the Forécariah prefecture.


Simandou will be the largest integrated iron ore mine and infrastructure project ever developed in Africa, with the potential to transform the Guinean economy and transport infrastructure"; source: Rio Tinto.

Also: read the Source Book-commissioned document: Resource Corridors: Experiences, Economics and Engagement; a Typology of Sub-Saharan African Corridors.

Minerals and Africa's Development

This report by the by the African Union and UN Economic Commission for Africa acknowledges that, on the subject of Sustainable Development and mining in Africa, much work remains to be done:

"The social and environmental impacts of mineral exploitation have been the focus of protests and the flashpoint for conflicts between mining firms and communities in mining areas. !e report acknowledges that while progress has been made in environmental impact assessment, major weaknesses and deficiencies still persist, particularly in evaluating and regulating less visible environmental impacts while strategic impact assessment is at a rudimentary phase across the continent.

There is usually a mismatch between the expression of public participation rights in formal instruments and its implementation. There is a need to redress the weight of existing power relations, especially for marginalized and vulnerable groups, to address deep-seated authoritarian elements of local cultures and some public institutions and reduce the resource constraints (human and material) of public institutions and those affected by or actively pursuing public participation."

  



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