Kenya is an East Africa counrty that borders the Indian Ocean between Somalia to the northeast and Tanzania to the south. In the interior it is bounded by Ethiopia to the north, Uganda plus Lake Victoria  to the west, and Sudan to the northwest. The total area of Kenya is 580,367 km2 of which 1.9% is water. Kenya’s terrain is composed of low plains that rise into central highlands that are, in turn, bisected by the Great Rift Valley home to three of Africa's highest mountains, Mount Kenya, Mount Elgon and Kilimanjaro. The highest point within Kenya is Mount Kenya which at 5,199 m above sea level and is the second highest mountain peak in Africa. The main rivers are the Galana and the Tana. Important lakes include Lake Turkana in the north, Lake Victoria on the western border, Lake Baringo, Lake Niavasha and Lake Nakuru. The Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa. Nairobi continues to be the primary communication and financial hub of East Africa.


Kenya is underlain by Neoarchean (meta-)sedimentary and volcanic rocks in the west of the country along the border area with Uganda-Tanzania east of Lake Victoria; metamorphic rocks of the Neoproterozoic Pan-African Mozambique belt are exposed mainly in the northern central part of the country, and sediments ranging from Late Palaeozoic to Recent times, including continental deposits of the Karoo Supergroup, are found along the coast. Predominantly younger volcanics associated with the rift formation dominate the geology of the central part of the country and it appears that the volcanism has shifted eastwards with time. The East African Rift System is represented by the Gregory (Kenyan) Rift in which the altitude of the rift floor reaches a maximum of 2000m asl in the Naivasha area.